scientific knowledge base



Andalusian Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Spain
Cancer Research UK
CIBIO Università degli Studi di Trento, Italy
Department für Ernährungwissenschaften, Universität Wien, Austria
Franz-Volhard-Centrum für Klinische Forschung, Germany
Genesis Breast Cancer Prevention, UK
Harvard Medical School, USA
Imperial College London, UK
Institut für Sozialmedizin, Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsökonomieder der Charité Berlin, Germany
Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic
Intermountain Medical Centre Heart Institute, USA
Kelo University, Japan
National Institute on Ageing, USA 
Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre at Newcastle University, UK
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, USA 
Stanford University School of Medicine, USA
Technische Universität München, Germany
Thomas Jefferson University, USA
Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy
Universität Aarhus, Denmark
Universität Zürich, Switzerland
Universitätsklinikum Jena, Germany
University College London Institute of Healthy Ageing, UK
University of Arizona, USA
University of Florida, USA 
University of Illinois, USA
University of Pennsylvania, USA
University of Southern California Longevity Institute, USA
University of Sydney, Australia
Yale School of Medicine, USA
* a selective list



Our particular method of fasting is based on the latest developments in medical science. Here are some of the most outstanding contributions of recent years. Please click on topics below to view the corresponding lists of scientific papers:

Ancestral diets and health


Hunter-gatherer diets - a different perspective: Katharine Milton; Am J Clin Nutr, 2000, 71:665–7

Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity: Herman Pontzer, David A. Raichlen, Brian M. Wood, Audax Z. P. Mabulla, Susan B. Racette, Frank W. Marlowe; PLoS One. 2012, 7(7)

Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity: Ian Spreadbury; Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 2012, 5 175–189

Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers: Herman Pontzer, David A. Raichlen, Brian M. Wood, Melissa Emery Thompson, Susan B. Racette, Audax Z.P. Mabulla andFrank W. Marlowe; Am J Hum Biol, 2015, doi: 10.1002/ajhb.22711


Physiology of fasting in human


Brain metabolism during fasting: Owen OR, Morgan AP, Kemp HG, Sullivan JM, Herrara MG, Cahill GF Jr.; J Clin Invest. 1967, 46(10):1589-95

Starvation in man: Cahill GF Jr.; N Engl J Med, 1970, 282(12):668-75

Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man: Klan Y. Ho, Johannes D. Veldhuls, Michael L. Johnson, Richard Furlaneto, William S. Evans, K. G. M. M. Alberti, and Michael 0. Thomer; J Clin Invest, 1988, 81(4): 968–975

Fuel and energy metabolism in fasting humans: Michael G Carlson, Wanda L Snead, and Peter J Campbell; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994, 60:29-36

The Protein-Retaining Effects of Growth Hormone During Fasting Involve Inhibition of Muscle-Protein Breakdown: Helene Nørrelund, K. Sreekumaran Nair, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, and Niels Møller; Diabetes, 2001, 50:96–104

Modulation of basal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by growth hormone and free fatty acids during short-term fasting: Helene Nørrelund, Steen Nielsen, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Niels Møller; Eur J Endocrinol, 2004, 150, 779–787

Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans: Luigi Fontana, Edward P. Weiss, Dennis T. Villareal, Samuel Klein and John O. Holloszy; Aging Cell, 2008, 7(5): 681–687

Impact of Fasting on Growth Hormone Signaling and Action in Muscle and Fat: Louise Moller, Lisa Dalman, Helene Nørrelund, Nils Billestrup, Jan Frystyk, Niels Moller, and Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen; J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2009, 94: 965–972

Effects of long-term calorie restriction and endurance exercise on glucose tolerance, insulin action, and adipokine production: Luigi Fontana, Samuel Klein and John O. Holloszy; AGE, 2010, 32:97–108

Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone: Ronald W. Alfa, Sangbin Park, Kathleen-Rose Skelly, Gregory Poffenberger, Nimit Jain, Xueying Gu, Lutz Kockel, Jing Wang, Yinghua Liu, Alvin C. Powers and Seung K. Kim; Cell Metab, 2015, 21(2): 323-333


Physiology and pathophysiology of ketone bodies


Ketoacids? Good medicine? Cahill GF Jr and Veech RL; Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc, 2003, 114:149-61; discussion 162-3

Ketones: metabolism's ugly duckling. VanItallie TB and Nufert TH; Nutr Rev, 2003, 61(10):327-41

(D)-beta-Hydroxybutyrate Inhibits Adipocyte Lipolysis via the Nicotinic Acid Receptor PUMA-G: Andrew K. P. Taggart, Jukka Kero, Xiaodong Gan, Tian-Quan Cai, Kang Cheng, Marc Ippolito, Ning Ren, Rebecca Kaplan, Kenneth Wu, Tsuei-Ju Wu, Lan Jin, Chen Liaw, Ruoping Chen, Jeremy Richman, Daniel Connolly, Stefan Offermanns, Samuel D. Wright, and M. Gerard Waters; J Biol Chem, 2005, 280(29):26649-52

Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites: John C. Newman and Eric Verdin; Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2014, Vol. 25, No. 1

Fasting mitigates immediate hypersensitivity: a pivotal role of endogenous D-beta-hydroxybutyrate: Shigeru Nakamura, Ryuji Hisamura, Sachiko Shimoda, Izumi Shibuya and Kazuo Tsubota; Nutrition & Metabolism, 2014, 11:40

Prolonged Fasting reduces IGF-1/PKA to promote hematopoietic stem cell-based regeneration and reverse immunosuppression: Chia-Wei Cheng, Gregor B. Adams, Laura Perin, Min Wei, Xiaoying Zhou, Ben S. Lam, Stefano Da Sacco, Mario Mirisola, David I. Quinn, Tanya B. Dorff, John J. Kopchick, and Valter D. Longo; Cell Stem Cell, 2014, 14(6): 810–823

The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease: Yun-Hee Youm, Kim Y Nguyen, Ryan W Grant, Emily L Goldberg, Monica Bodogai, Dongin Kim, Dominic D'Agostino, Noah Planavsky, Christopher Lupfer, Thirumala D Kanneganti, Seokwon Kang, Tamas L Horvath, Tarek M Fahmy, Peter A Crawford, Arya Biragyn, Emad Alnemri and Vishwa Deep Dixit; Nature Medicine, 2015, 21, 263–269


Ketogenic diets


Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet: Gasior M, Rogawski MA, Hartman AL; Behav Pharmacol, 2006, 17(5-6):431-9

History of the ketogenic diet: James W. Wheless; Epilepsia, 2008, 49(Suppl. 8):3–5

The nervous system and metabolic dysregulation: emerging evidence converges on ketogenic diet therapy: David N. Ruskin and Susan A. Masino; Front Neurosci, 2012, 26;6:33

Ketogenic Diets and Pain: Susan A. Masino and David N. Ruskin; J Child Neurol, 2013, 28(8): 993–1001

The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy: Lutas, A. and Yellen, G.; Trends Neurosci, 2013, 36, 32–40

Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship: Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco, Enrico M. Camporesi and Devanand Mangar; Front. Psychol, 2015, 6:27

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission: Accardi MV, Daniels BA, Brown PM, Fritschy JM, Tyagarajan SK, Bowie D; Nat Commun, 2014, 5:3168

How Does The Ketogenic Diet Induce Anti-Seizure Effects? Jong M. Rho; Neurosci Lett, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.07.034. 

Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship: Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco, Enrico M. Camporesi and Devanand Mangar; Front Psychol, 2015, 2;6:27


Control of energy intake


Insulin, Leptin and Reward: Jon F. Davis, Derrick L. Choi, and Stephen C. Benoit; Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2010, 21(2):68

Fibroblast growth factor 21 regulates energy metabolism by activating the AMPK–SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway: Mary D. L. Chau, Jiaping Gao, Qing Yang, Zhidan Wu, and Jesper Gromada; PNAS, 2010, vol. 107, no. 28

Regulation of Energy Balance and Body Weight by the Brain: A Distributed System Prone to Disruption: Lucy F. Faulconbridge and Matthew R. Hayes; Psychiatr Clin North Am, 2011, 34(4): 733–745.

Long-Term Persistence of Hormonal Adaptations to Weight Loss: Priya Sumithran, Luke A. Prendergast, Elizabeth Delbridge, Katrina Purcell, Arthur Shulkes, Adamandia Kriketos and Joseph Proietto; N Engl J Med, 2011, 365:1597-604

Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control: Emil Egecioglu, Karolina P. Skibicka, Caroline Hansson, Mayte Alvarez-Crespo, P. Anders Friberg, Elisabet Jerlhag, Jörgen A. Engel and Suzanne L. Dickson; Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2011, 12:141–151

Influence of Running and Walking on Hormonal Regulators of Appetite in Women: D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Sonnie Palm, Aasthaa Bansal, Kathleen J. Austin, Ann Marie Hart and Brenda M. Alexander; J Obes, 2012, Article ID 730409

Obesity and Appetite Control: Keisuke Suzuki, Channa N. Jayasena, and Stephen R. Bloom; Exp Diabetes Res, 2012, doi:10.1155/2012/824305

Brain Regulation of energy balance and body weights: Liangyou Rui; Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2013, 14(4)

Role of Appetite-Regulating Peptides in the Pathophysiology of Addiction: Implications for Pharmacotherapy: Jörgen A. Engel and Elisabet Jerlhag; CNS Drugs, 2014, 28:875–886

Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits controlling homeostatic energy balance: Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis and Marc Claret; J Endocrinol, 2014, 220, T25-T46

Effects of high-fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function: Katrien Lowette, Lina Roosen, Jan Tack and Pieter Vanden Berghe; Front Nutr, 2015, 2, 5:1-5


Review papers on fasting


Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials: Krista A Varady and Marc K Hellerstein; Am J Clin Nutr, 2007, 86:7–13

Ernährungstherapie und therapeutisches Fasten in der Naturheilkunde: Andreas Michalsen; Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin, 2007, 19(5):260–268

Caloric Restriction in Humans: Impact on Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes: Leanne M. Redman and Eric Ravussin; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2011, 14(2):275-87

Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications: Valter D. Longo and Mark P. Mattson; Cell Metab, 2014, 19(2): 181–192


Clinical trials on fasting


Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism: Leonie K Heilbronn, Steven R Smith, Corby K Martin, Stephen D Anton and Eric Ravussin; Am J Clin Nutr, 2005, 81:69–73

Prolonged fasting in patients with chronic pain syndromes leads to late mood-enhancement not related to weight loss and fasting-induced leptin depletion. Michalsen A, Kuhlmann MK, Lüdtke R, Bäcker M, Langhorst J, Dobos GJ; Nutr Neurosci, 2006, 9(5-6):195-200

Alternate Day Calorie Restriction Improves Clinical Findings and Reduces Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Overweight Adults with Moderate Asthma: James B. Johnson, Warren Summer, Roy G. Cutler, Bronwen Martin, Dong-Hoon Hyun, Vishwa D. Dixit, Michelle Pearson, Matthew Nassar, Stuart Maudsley, Olga Carlson, Sujit John, Donald R. Laub and Mark P. Mattson; Free Radic Biol Med, 2007, 42(5): 665–674

Short-term low calorie diet intervention reduces serum advanced glycation end products in healthy overweight or obese adults. Gugliucci A, Kotani K, Taing J, Matsuoka Y, Sano Y, Yoshimura M, Egawa K, Horikawa C, Kitagawa Y, Kiso Y, Kimura S, Sakane N; Ann Nutr Metab, 2009, 54(3):197-201

Unkontrollierte klinische Studie zur Wirksamkeit ambulanten Heilfastens bei Patienten mit Arthrose: Schmidt S, Stange R, Lischka E, Kiehntopf M, Deufel T, Loth D und Uhlemann C; Forsch Komplementmed, 2010, 17:87–94

Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol: E. L. Lim, K. G. Hollingsworth, B. S. Aribisala, M. J. Chen, J. C. Mathers, R. Taylor; Diabetologia, 2011, 54(10):2506-14

The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women: M N Harvie, M Pegington, M P Mattson, J Frystyk, B Dillon, G Evans, J Cuzick, S A Jebb, B Martin, R G Cutler, T G Son, S Maudsley, O D Carlson, J M Egan, A Flyvbjerg and A Howell; Int J Obes (Lond), 2011, 35, 714-727

Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women: Monica C Klempel, Cynthia M Kroeger, Surabhi Bhutani, John F Trepanowski and Krista A Varady; Nutr J, 2012, 11:98

The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women: Michelle Harvie, Claire Wright, Mary Pegington, Debbie McMullan, Ellen Mitchell, Bronwen Martin, Roy G. Cutler, Gareth Evans, Sigrid Whiteside, Stuart Maudsley, Simonetta Camandola, Rui Wang, Olga D. Carlson, Josephine M. Egan, Mark P. Mattson and Anthony Howell; Br J Nutr, 2013, 110, 1534–1547

Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet. Klempel MC, Kroeger CM and Varady KA; Metabolism, 2013, 62(1):137-43

The Effects of Intermittent Energy Restriction on Indices of Cardiometabolic Health: Rona Antoni, Kelly L. Johnston, Adam L. Collins and M. Denise Robertson; Research in Endocrinology, 2014, Article ID 459119

Safety of alternate day fasting and effect on disordered eating behaviors: Kristin K Hoddy, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Adrienne R Barnosky, Surabhi Bhutani and Krista A Varady; Nutr J, 2015, 14:44

Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles: Krista A. Varady, Vi T. Dam, Monica C. Klempel, Matthew Horne, Rani Cruz, Cynthia M. Kroeger and Sylvia Santosa; Sci Rep, 2015, 5;5:7561

Restoring normoglycaemia by use of a very low calorie diet in long- and short-duration Type 2 diabetes: Steven S, Taylor R; Diabet Med, 2015, doi: 10.1111/dme.12722

Practicality of intermittent fasting in humans and its effect on oxidative stress and genes related to aging and metabolism. Wegman MP, Guo MH, Bennion DM, Shanker MN, Chrzanowski SM, Goldberg LA, Xu J, Williams TA, Lu X, Hsu SI, Anton SD, Leeuwenburgh C and Brantly ML; Rejuvenation Res, 2015, 18(2):162-72


Caloric restriction, ageing and longevity: animals to human


The art of living long, by Luigi Cornaro, 1464-1566, Italy, published 1917 (USA)

Effect of 6-mo. calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation and oxidative stress in overweight subjects: Leonie K Heilbronn, Lilian de Jonge, Madlyn I Frisard, James P. DeLany, D. Enette Larson Meyer, Jennifer Rood, Tuong Nguyen, Corby K Martin, Julia Volaufova, Marlene M Most, Frank L Greenway, Steven R Smith, Donald A Williamson, Walter A Deutsch, and Eric Ravussin: Pennington CALERIE Team; JAMA, 2006, 295(13): 1539–1548

Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease: Daniela Omodei and Luigi Fontana; FEBS Lett, 2011, 585(11):1537–1542

The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity: Stephen J. Simpson & David Raubenheimer; Princeton University Press, 2012

Protein and amino acid restriction, aging and disease: from yeast to humans: Mirzaei H, Suarez JA and Longo VD; Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2014, (11):558-66

Low Protein Intake is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population: Morgan E. Levinea, Jorge A. Suareza, Sebastian Brandhorsta, Priya Balasubramanian, Chia-Wei Cheng, Federica Madia, Luigi Fontana, Mario G. Mirisola, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Junxiang Wan, Giuseppe Passarino, Brian K. Kennedy, Pinchas Cohen, Eileen M. Crimmins, and Valter D. Longo; Cell Metab, 2014, 19(3): 407–417

A Periodic Diet that Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan: Sebastian Brandhorst, In Young Choi, Min Wei, Chia Wei Cheng, Sargis Sedrakyan, Gerardo Navarrete, Louis Dubeau, Li Peng Yap, Ryan Park, Manlio Vinciguerra, Stefano Di Biase, Hamed Mirzaei, Mario G. Mirisola, Patra Childress, Lingyun Ji, Susan Groshen, Fabio Penna, Patrizio Odetti, Laura Perin, Peter S. Conti, Yuji Ikeno, Brian K. Kennedy, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E. Morgan, Tanya B. Dorff, and Valter D. Longo; Cell Metab, 2015, 22, 86–99

Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics: George S. Roth and Donald K. Ingram; Ann NY Acad Sci, 2015, doi: 10.1111/nyas.1283

Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity: Samantha M Solon-Biet, Sarah J Mitchell, Rafael de Cabo, David Raubenheimer, David G Le Couteur and Stephen J Simpson; J Endocrinol, 2015, 226, R17–R28

Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready? Valter D. Longo, Adam Antebi, Andrzej Bartke, Nir Barzilai, Holly M. Brown-Borg, Calogero Caruso, Tyler J. Curiel, Rafael de Cabo, Claudio Franceschi, David Gems, Donald K. Ingram, Thomas E. Johnson, Brian K. Kennedy, Cynthia Kenyon, Samuel Klein, John J. Kopchick, Guenter Lepperdinger, Frank Madeo, Mario G. Mirisola, James R. Mitchell, Giuseppe Passarino, Karl L. Rudolph, John M. Sedivy, Gerald S. Shadel, David A. Sinclair, Stephen R. Spindler, Yousin Suh, Jan Vijg, Manlio Vinciguerra and Luigi Fontana; Aging Cell, 2015, 14, 497–510

A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity: CALERIE Study Group; J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2015, doi: 10.1093/gerona/glv057

Obesity, the deadly quartet and the contribution of the neglected daily organ rest - a new dimension of un-health and its prevention: Stig Bengmark; Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr, 2015, 4(4): 278–288

Fasting and cancer treatment


Fasting and Cancer Treatment in Humans: A Case series report: Fernando M. Safdie, Tanya Dorff, David Quinn, Luigi Fontana, Min Wei, Changhan Lee, Pinchas Cohen and Valter D. Longo; AGING, 2009, Vol.1 No.12

Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients: Lizzia Raffaghello, Fernando Safdie, Giovanna Bianchi, Tanya Dorff, Luigi Fontana and Valter D. Longo; Cell Cycle, 2010,9:22, 4474-4476

Fasting Cycles Retard Growth of Tumors and Sensitize a Range of Cancer Cell Types to Chemotherapy: Changhan Lee, Lizzia Raffaghello, Sebastian Brandhorst, Fernando M. Safdie, Giovanna Bianchi, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Vito Pistoia, Min Wei, Saewon Hwang, Annalisa Merlino, Laura Emionite, Rafael de Cabo and Valter D. Longo; Sci Transl Med, 2012, 4(124)

Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition: Irene Caffa, Vito D’Agostino, Patrizia Damonte, Debora Soncini, Michele Cea, Fiammetta Monacelli, Patrizio Odetti, Alberto Ballestrero, Alessandro Provenzani, Valter D. Longo and Alessio Nencioni; Oncotarget, 2015, Vol. 6, No. 14

Fasting cycles potentiate the efficacy of gemcitabine treatment in in vitro and in vivo pancreatic cancer models: Martina D’Aronzo, Manlio Vinciguerra, Tommaso Mazza, Concetta Panebianco, Chiara Saracino, Stephen P. Pereira, Paolo Graziano and Valerio Pazienza; Oncotarget, 2015, Vol. 6, No. 21


Circadian rhythm, sleep and metabolic health


A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults: Kim S Stote, David J Baer, Karen Spears, David R Paul, G Keith Harris, William V Rumpler, Pilar Strycula, Samer S Najjar, Luigi Ferrucci, Donald K Ingram, Dan L Longo and Mark P Mattson; Am J Clin Nutr, 2007, 85(4): 981–988

Effect of feeding regimens on circadian rhythms: Implications for aging and longevity: Oren Froy and Ruth Miskin; AGING, 2010, Vol.2 No.1

Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome: Carla S. Möller-Levet, Simon N. Archer, Giselda Bucca, Emma E. Laing, Ana Slak, Renata Kabiljo, June C. Y. Lo, Nayantara Santhi, Malcolm von Schantz, Colin P. Smith and Derk-Jan Dijk; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013, 110(12):E1132-41

Circadian disruption leads to insulin resistance and obesity: Shu-qun Shi, Tasneem Ansari, Owen P. McGuinness, David H. Wasserman and Carl Hirschie Johnson; Curr Biol, 2013, 23(5): 372–381

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain: Rachel R. Markwalda, Edward L. Melanson, Mark R. Smitha, Janine Higgins, Leigh Perreault, Robert H. Eckel and Kenneth P. Wright, Jr.; PNAS, 2013, 110;14, 5695–5700

Circadian aspects of energy metabolism and aging: Oren Froy; Ageing Res Rev, 2013, 12(4):931-40

Meal frequency and timing in health and disease: Mark P. Mattson, David B. Allison, Luigi Fontana, Michelle Harvie, Valter D. Longo, Willy J. Malaisse, Michael Mosley, Lucia Notterpek, Eric Ravussin, Frank A. J. L. Scheer, Thomas N. Seyfried, Krista A. Varady and Satchidananda Panda; PNAS, 2014, 111:47, 16647–16653

Breakfast: To Skip or Not to Skip? Tanya Zilberter and Eugene Yuri Zilberter; Front Public Health, 2014, 2: 59

Circadian Metabolism in the Light of Evolution: Zachary Gerhart-Hines and Mitchell A. Lazar; Endocr Rev, 2015, 36(3):289-304



Treatment of periodontal disease results in improvements in endothelial dysfunction and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness. Piconi S, Trabattoni D, Luraghi C, Perilli E, Borelli M, Pacei M, Rizzardini G, Lattuada A, Bray DH, Catalano M, Sparaco A, Clerici M; FASEB, 2009, J 23, 1196-1204

Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis: Omry Koren, Aymé Spor, Jenny Felin, Frida Fåk, Jesse Stombaugh, Valentina Tremaroli, Carl Johan Behre, Rob Knight, Björn Fagerberg, Ruth E. Ley and Fredrik Bäckhed; PNAS, 2011, vol. 108, suppl. 1, 4592–4598

The mind-body-microbial continuum: Antonio Gonzalez, Jesse Stombaugh, Catherine Lozupone, Peter J. Turnbaugh, Jeffrey I. Gordon and Rob Knight; Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 2011, 13:55-62

Gut microbiota and sirtuins in obesity-related inflammation and bowel dysfunction: Shaheen E Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner; J Transl Med, 2011, 9:202

Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions: Christina J Adler, Keith Dobney, Laura S Weyrich, John Kaidonis, Alan W Walker, Wolfgang Haak, Corey JA Bradshaw, Grant Townsend, Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, Kurt W Alt, Julian Parkhill and Alan Cooper; Nat Genet, 2013, 45(4): 450–455

The Human Gut Microbiome and Body Metabolism: Implications for Obesity and Diabetes: Sridevi Devaraj, Peera Hemarajata and James Versalovic; Clin Chem, 2013, 59(4): 617–628

Compositional and Functional Features of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Their Effects on Human Health: Emily B. Hollister, Chunxu Gao and James Versalovic; Gastroenterology, 2014, 146(6): 1449–1458

The Microbiome and Disease: Reviewing the links between the Oral Microbiome, Aging, and Alzheimer’s Disease: Deborah K. Shoemark and Shelley J. Allen; J Alzheimers Dis, 2015, 43(3):725-38

Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity: Zhenjiang Xu and Rob Knight; Br J Nutr, 2015, 113, S1–S5

Gut microbiome composition is associated with temperament during early childhood: Christian LM, Galley JD, Hade EM, Schoppe-Sullivan S, Kamp Dush C and Bailey MT; Brain Behav Immun, 2015, 45:118-27

Investigation of the Association Between the Fecal Microbiota and Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: a Population-Based Case-Control Pilot Study: James J. Goedert, Gieira Jones, Xing Hua, Xia Xu, Guoqin Yu, Roberto Flores, Roni T. Falk, Mitchell H. Gail, Jianxin Shi, Jacques Ravel and Heather Spencer Feigelson; J Natl Cancer Inst, 2015, 1;107(8)


Pre- and probiotics


Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal: Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, De Backer F, Neyrinck AM and Delzenne NM; Am J Clin Nutr, 2009, 90:1236-43

Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation: Peera Hemarajata and James Versalovic; Ther Adv Gastroenterol, 2013, 6(1) 39–51

Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics: Geurts L, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, Knauf C and Cani PD; Benef Microbes, 2014, 5(1):3-17

Review article: dietary fibre–microbiota interactions: H. L. Simpson and B. J. Campbell; Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2015, 42, 2, 58-179


Other related topics


Bone mineral density and nutrition

Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study: Katherine L Tucker, Honglei Chen, Marian T Hannan, L Adrienne Cupples, Peter WF Wilson, David Felson, and Douglas P Kiel; Am J Clin Nutr, 2002, 76:245–52

Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women: Diane Feskanich, Walter C Willett, and Graham A Colditz; Am J Clin Nutr, 2003, 77:504–11

Milk and acid-base balance: proposed hypothesis versus scientific evidence. Fenton TR and Lyon AW; J Am Coll Nutr, 2011, 30(5 Suppl 1):471S-5S

Milk Consumption During Teenage Years and Risk of Hip Fractures in Older Adults: Diane Feskanich, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Lindsay Frazier and Walter C. Willett; JAMA Pediatr, 2014, 168(1): 54–60


Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity: behavioral aberration or biochemical drive? Reinterpreting the First Law of Thermodynamics: Robert H Lustig; Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab, 2006, 2, 447-458

Increasing Healthy Eating vs. Reducing High Energy-dense Foods to Treat Pediatric Obesity: Leonard H. Epstein, Rocco A. Paluch, Meghan D. Beecher and James N. Roemmich; Obesity (Silver Spring), 2008, 16(2): 318–326

Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents: Ioanna Partsalaki, Alexia Karvela and Bessie E. Spiliotis; J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2012, 25:7-8, 697–704

Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects: Megan R. Ruth, Ava M. Port, Mitali Shah, Ashley C. Bourland, Nawfal W. Istfan, Kerrie P. Nelson, Noyan Gokce and Caroline M. Apovian; Metabolism, 2013, 62(12)

A New Biomarker of Hedonic Eating? A Preliminary Investigation of Cortisol and Nausea Responses to Acute Opioid Blockade: Jennifer Daubenmier, Robert H. Lustig, Frederick M. Hecht, Jean Kristeller, Josh Woolley, Tanja Adam, Mary Dallman and Elissa Epel; Appetite, 2014, 74: 92-100


Health and dietary 

Dietary Factors, Hormesis and Health: Mark P. Mattson; Ageing Res Rev, 2008, 7(1): 43–48

Fructose: It’s “Alcohol Without the Buzz" Robert H. Lustig; Adv Nutr, 2013, 4: 226–235

Diet-induced obesity in ad libitum-fed mice: food texture overrides the effect of macronutrient composition: Charles Desmarchelier, Tobias Ludwig, Ronny Scheundel, Nadine Rink, Bernhard L. Bader, Martin Klingenspor and Hannelore Daniel; British Journal of Nutrition, 2013, 109, 1518–1527

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet: PREDIMED Study Investigators; N Engl J Med, 2013, 368:1279-90

Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts: Lap Tai Le and Joan Sabaté; Nutrients, 2014, 6, 2131-2147

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges: Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E; Gut Microbes, 2015, 6(2):149-55


Neurodegenerative diseases and nutrition

The role of nutrition in Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiological evidence: M. C. Morris; Eur J Neurol, 2009, 16(Suppl 1): 1–7

Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy: Mehrdad Alirezaei, Christopher C. Kemball, Claudia T. Flynn, Malcolm R. Wood, J. Lindsay Whitton and William B. Kiosses; Autophagy, 2010, 6:6, 702-710

Nutrition and Alzheimer's disease: the detrimental role of a high carbohydrate diet: Seneff S, Wainwright G, Mascitelli L; Eur J Intern Med, 2011, 22(2):134-40

Integrative neurobiology of metabolic diseases, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration: Gertjan van Dijk, Steffen van Heijningen, Aaffien C. Reijne, Csaba Nyakas, Eddy A. van der Zee and Ulrich L. M. Eisel; Front Neurosci, 2015, 9:173

Diet, nutrients and metabolism: cogs in the wheel driving Alzheimer's disease pathology? Rhona Creegan, Wendy Hunt, Alexandra McManusa and Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith; Br J Nutr, 2015, 113(10):1499-517


Obesity and infertility in women

The relationship between gut and adipose hormones, and reproduction: Alexander N. Comninos, Channa N. Jayasena, and Waljit S. Dhillo; Hum Reprod Update, 2014, Vol.20, No.2 pp. 153–174

Female obesity and infertility: Talmor A and Dunphy B; Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 2015, 29(4):498-506


Obesity and erectile dysfunction

Mechanisms of obesity and related pathologies: Androgen deficiency and endothelial dysfunction may be the link between obesity and erectile dysfunction: Abdulmaged M. Traish, Robert J. Feeley and Andre Guay; FEBS Journal, 2009, 276, 5755–5767 

How does obesity affect fertility in men - and what are the treatment options? Stokes VJ, Anderson RA and George JT; Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2015, 82(5):633-8


Sports and nutrition

Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes: effects on cell metabolism: Wee Kian Yeo, Andrew L. Carey, Louise Burke, Lawrence L. Spriet and John A. Hawley; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2011, 36: 12–22

The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness. Chaouachi A, Leiper JB, Chtourou H, Aziz AR, Chamari K; J Sports Sci, 2012, 30 Suppl 1:S53-73

The Use of Carbohydrates During Exercise as an Ergogenic Aid: Naomi M. Cermak, Luc J. C. van Loon; Sports Med, 2013, 43(11):1139-55

Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise: Jeff S. Voleka, Timothy Noakesb and Stephen D. Phinneyc; Eur J Sport Sci, 2015;15(1):13-20